Not everyone can get washboard abs, no matter how many sit-ups you do –– it’s all genetics. People who are born with a relatively small number of muscle cells tend to have a linear appearance (ectomorphic physique), and encounter more difficulty in developing large muscles.
Not everyone can get washboard abs, no matter how many sit-ups you do –– it’s all genetics.
People who are born with a relatively small number of muscle cells tend to have a linear appearance (ectomorphic physique), and encounter more difficulty in developing large muscles.
People who inherit a relatively large number of fat cells generally have a round appearance (endomorphic physique), and experience more difficulty in developing defined muscles.
Those with a large number of muscle cells and a relatively small number of fat cells typically have a triangular appearance (mesomorphic physique), and are more likely to develop defined muscles. These are the same people who characteristically have wide shoulders and narrow hips, as well as large torsos and small midsections. With appropriate training, mesomorphic men and women have the best chance to achieve chiseled abdominal muscles.
A well-designed training program will enable all of us to improve our midsection strength and appearance, even if we don’t develop the so-called six-pack set of abdominal muscles prominently displayed by bodybuilders. For most of us, a reasonably lean and tight midsection is an attainable goal that can be realized through proper nutrition and exercise.
The role of appropriate nutrition should not be underestimated with respect to reducing fat and slimming your waist area. In fact, a small decrease in your daily calorie consumption results in the use of stored fat to meet your daily energy requirements. For example, if you eat just 350 fewer calories on a daily basis, you will lose about a pound of fat every 10 days. Generally speaking, shifting from a typical American diet to a lower-fat menu that emphasizes vegetables, fruits, whole grains and quality proteins will cut at least that many calories from your daily food intake.
Endurance exercise, such as running, cycling or stepping, is an excellent way to burn extra calories, as well as improve cardiovascular fitness. Depending upon training intensity, 30 minutes of these aerobic activities can burn between 250 and 450 calories. Assuming an average of 350 calories per half-hour training session, every five hours of endurance exercise should result in a 1-pound fat loss.
Strength training also uses a lot of energy during the exercise session, burning about 250 calories in a 30-minute circuit workout. A typical circuit workout involves 10 to 15 strength exercises performed with brief rests between stations. However, unlike endurance exercise, strength training requires additional calories all day long for muscle tissue maintenance (repair and rebuilding). Research shows that a single circuit strength training session can increase resting energy expenditure by 100 calories a day for three full days after your workout.
Of course, strength training is also the best activity for developing your abdominal muscles, so that you have something to show in your leaner midsection. Although some people have more muscle building potential than others, the following strength exercises best address the major midsection muscles.
Machine abdominal curl: Performed properly, this exercise effectively isolates the front abdominal muscle (rectus abdominis) and permits a progressive increase in resistance to maximize strength development.
Machine rotary torso: This exercise targets the oblique muscles on both sides of the midsection. Rotating your torso to the right uses the right internal and left external oblique muscles, and rotating your torso to the left uses the left internal and right external oblique muscles. The rectus abdominis muscle is involved in both movements, making this an excellent exercise for overall midsection conditioning.
If you do not have access to resistance machines, I recommend a combination of bodyweight exercises performed with as little rest as possible between segments.
Basic trunk curl: This is the standard abdominal exercise, and it works very well when performed in a slow and controlled manner. Place your hands loosely behind your head to maintain a neutral neck position, and slowly curl your upper back off the floor until your abdominal muscles are fully contracted. Each repetition should be completed in about four seconds (two seconds up and two seconds down), so that 15 reps require about one minute of continuous abdominal work.
Reverse trunk curl: This more difficult movement is performed by keeping your upper back on the floor, bending your knees with your feet in the air, and slowly pressing your lower back into the floor. Like the basic trunk curl, 15 properly performed repetitions should take about 60 seconds for completion.
Push-pull: This is the most demanding exercise in the sequence, and involves the rectus abdominis, internal obliques, external obliques and hip flexor muscles. Begin by doing a basic trunk curl and remaining in the top position. Lift both knees so both feet are off the floor. Bring your left knee backward and try to touch it with your right elbow as you extend your right leg forward. Reverse this procedure by bringing your right knee backward and trying to touch it with your left elbow as you extend your left leg forward. Alternate this push-pull, trunk-twisting action at a slow speed for about one minute.
Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., teaches exercise science at Quincy (Mass.) College and consults for the South Shore YMCA. He has written 24 books on physical fitness.